The present study addresses a detailed experimental and numerical investigation on the impact of water droplets on smooth heated surfaces. High-speed infrared thermography is combined with high-speed imaging to couple the heat transfer and fluid dynamic processes occurring at droplet impact. Droplet spreading (e.g. spreading ratio) and detailed surface temperature fields are then evaluated in time and compared with the numerically predicted results. The numerical reproduction of the phenomena was conducted using an enhanced version of a VOF-based solver of OpenFOAM previously developed, which was further modified to account for conjugate heat transfer between the solid and fluid domains, focusing only on the sensible heat removed during droplet spreading. An excellent agreement is observed between the temporal evolution of the experimentally measured and the numerically predicted spreading factors (differences between the experimental and numerical values were always lower than 3.4%). The numerical and experimental dimensionless surface temperature profiles along the droplet radius were also in good agreement, depicting a maximum difference of 0.19. Deeper analysis coupling fluid dynamics and heat transfer processes was also performed, evidencing a strong correlation between maximum and minimum temperature values and heat transfer coefficients with the vorticity fields in the lamella, which lead to particular mixing processes in the boundary layer region. The correlation between the resulted temperature fields and the droplet dynamics was obtained by assuming a relation between the vorticity and the local heat transfer coefficient, in the first fluid cell i.e. near the liquid-solid interface. The two measured fields revealed that local maxima and minima in the vorticity corresponded to spatially shifted local minima and maxima in the heat transfer coefficient, at all stages of the droplet spreading. This was particularly clear in the rim region, which therefore should be considered in future droplet spreading models.
|Title of host publication||ILASS–Europe 2017, 28th Conference on Liquid Atomization and Spray Systems|
|Place of Publication||Valencia, Spain|
|Number of pages||8|
|Publication status||Published - 6 Sep 2017|
|Event||ILASS–Europe 2017, 28th Conference on Liquid Atomization and Spray Systems - 6-8 September 2017, Valencia, Spain|
Duration: 6 Sep 2017 → …
|Conference||ILASS–Europe 2017, 28th Conference on Liquid Atomization and Spray Systems|
|Period||6/09/17 → …|
Bibliographical noteThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons 4.0 International License (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0).
- Droplet impact
- smooth heated surface
- high-speed infrared thermography