Objectives To (1) describe micronutrient intakes among women of reproductive age living in Mumbai slums; (2) assess the adequacy of these intakes compared with reference values; (3) identify important dietary sources of micronutrients. Subjects/methods Participants were 6426 non-pregnant women aged 16?39 years, registered in a randomised controlled trial of a food-based intervention set in the Bandra, Khar and Andheri areas of Mumbai, India. Cross-sectional quantified food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) data were collected. Vitamin (n = 9) and mineral (n = 6) intakes were calculated and analysed in relation to dietary reference values (DRVs). Important dietary sources were identified for each micronutrient. Results Median intakes of all micronutrients, except vitamin E, were below the FAO/WHO reference nutrient intake (RNI). Intakes of calcium, iron, vitamin A and folate were furthest from the RNI. For seven of the micronutrients, over half of the women had intakes below the lower reference nutrient intake (LRNI); this figure was over 7593 had intakes below the EAR for 5 or more micronutrients, and 640 or more. Adolescents had lower intakes than women aged gt;19 years. Less than 1rich fruit and vegetables were consumed infrequently. Conclusions These women had low intakes of multiple micronutrients, increasing their risk of insufficiency. There is a need to determine the factors causing poor intakes, to direct interventions that improve diet quality and nutritional sufficiency.
|Pages (from-to)||1536 - 1545|
|Number of pages||9|
|Journal||European Journal of Clinical Nutrition|
|Publication status||Published - 31 May 2019|
- Risk factors