Design challenges for mobile and wearable systems to support learning on-the-move at outdoor cultural heritage sites

Alaa Alkhafaji , Sanaz Fallahkhair, Mihaela Cocea

Research output: Chapter in Book/Conference proceeding with ISSN or ISBNConference contribution with ISSN or ISBNpeer-review


This paper presents a novel set of design challenges for the development of mobile and wearable applications to be used at cultural heritage sites. These challenges were drawn out based on a user study that was carried out to evaluate a mobile application prototype, SmartC. SmartC was designed for supporting people in taking learning opportunities at sites whenever they need informally while they are on the move. Augmented reality and wearable computing, i.e. smart eye glasses, were used in this research with the aim of bringing the past to life, as well as enhancing visitors’ engagement. SmartC was evaluated by 26 participants, potential end-users, in the field. The evaluation study mainly focused on the interaction and usability aspects, which contribute to the field of HCI. The paper outlines several issues and challenges that were identified based on the evaluation study, summarised as: (1) interaction design related; (2) wearable computing related; (3) surroundings and environment related; (4) learner related; (5) context of use; and (6) technical issues. This paper also identifies aspects that relate to methods to be used and applied to such cases for evaluation studies.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationHuman-Computer Interaction – INTERACT 2019 - 17th IFIP TC 13 International Conference, Proceedings
Subtitle of host publication17th IFIP TC.13 International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction
EditorsDavid Lamas, Fernando Loizides, Lennart Nacke, Helen Petrie, Marco Winckler, Panayiotis Zaphiris
Place of PublicationPaphos, Cyprus
Number of pages23
ISBN (Electronic)9783030293871
ISBN (Print)9783030293864
Publication statusPublished - 25 Aug 2019
EventINTERACT 2019: 17th IFIP TC.13 International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction - Paphos, Cyprus, Paphos, Cyprus
Duration: 2 Sep 20196 Sep 2019

Publication series

NameLecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics)
Volume11748 LNCS
ISSN (Print)0302-9743
ISSN (Electronic)1611-3349


ConferenceINTERACT 2019
Abbreviated titleINTERACT
Internet address

Bibliographical note

This is a post-peer-review, pre-copyedit version of an article published in Lecture Notes in Computer Science. The final authenticated version is available online at:


  • Augmented reality
  • Mobile location-based services
  • Outdoors cultural heritage
  • Ubiquitous learning
  • Wearable computing


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